Sunday, May 24, 2020

Banking and Business Abbreviations for English Learners

Its common in banking and business to use abbreviations for a wide range of specific business expressions. Youll find each expression followed by the appropriate abbreviations below. Remember that abbreviations and acronyms are used differently in English. Abbreviations are used to replace words or expressions while acronyms simply take the first letter of each word. Its true that some abbreviations are acronyms, but not all. Common Banking and Business Abbreviations Against all risks a.a.r.Account a/cAccount current A/CAccommodation ACC/ACCOMAccount acct.Actual cash value a.c.v.After date a.d.Addition/Additional add.Advise adv.Air freight bill a.f.b.Agency agcy.Agent agt.Air mail transfer a.m.t.Account of a/oAccounts payable A.P.Authority to pay A/PAccounts receivable A.R.All risks a/rArrive/Arriving arr.Arrange/Arrangement/Arranging arr/arrng.Approximate/Approximately approx.Account sales A/S, A.S.At sight a/sAs soon as possible asapAttention attn.Atomic weight at. wt.Average av.Actual weight a/wAir waybill a.w.b.Balance bal.Barrel bar.Barrel bbl.Brought down b/dBill of exchange B/E, b/eBrought forward b/fBefore bfor.Bill of health B.H.Bank bk.Brokerage bkge.Bill of lading B/LBrought over b/oBills payable B.P.By procuration b.p.Bills receivable B.R.Balance sheet B/SBerth terms b.t.Bushel bu.Book value B/VCirca: centaire ca.Chartered accountant C.A.Current account c.a.Cash against documents C.A .D.Cash book C.B.Cash before delivery C.B.D.Carbon copy c.c.Carried down c/dCum dividend c.d.Carried forward c/fCompare cfCost and freight c fClearing house C/HCustom house C.H.Charges forward ch. fwd.Charges paid ch. pd.Charges prepaid ch. ppd.Cheque, check chq.Cost, insurance, freight c. i. f.Cost, insurance, freight and commission c.i.f. c.Cost, insurance, freight, and interest c.i.f. i.Car load c.l.Call of more C/mCredit note C/NCare of c/oCompany co.Cash on delivery C.O.D.Commission comm.Corporation corp.Cash on shipment C.O.S.Carriage paid C.P.Charter party C/PCharters pay duties c.p.d.Corporation cpn.Credit; creditor cr.Cable transfer C/TConstructive total loss c.t.l.Constructive total loss only c.t.l.o.Cumulative cum.Cum dividend cum div.Cumulative preference cum. pref.Commercial weight c/wCash with order C.W.O.Hundredweight cwt.Documents against acceptance; deposit account D/ADocuments against payment DAPDebenture db.Deferred d ef.Department dept.Dead freight d.f.Draft dft.Draft attached dtf/a.Clean draft dft/c.Discount disc.Dividend div.Dayletter DLDaily letter telegram DLTDebit note D/NDelivery order D/ODitto do.Dozen doz.Documents against payment D/PDebtor dr.Doctor Dr.Days after sight d/s, d.s.Deadweight d.w.Dock warrant D/WPennyweight dwt.Dozen dz.European Currency Unit ECUEast European Time E.E.T.For example e.g.Enclosure encl.Endorsement end.Errors and omissions excepted E. O.E.End of month e.o.m.Except otherwise herein provided e.o.h.p.Especially esp.Esquire Esq.Established est.Out exex coupon ex cp.Ex dividend ex div.ex interest ex. int.ex new (shares) ex h.ex store ex stre.ex wharf ex whf.Free of all average f.a.a.Fast as can f.a.c.Freight all kinds f.a.k.Fair average quality; free alongside quay f.a.q.Frequently asked questions F.a.q.Free alongside ship f.a.s.For cash f/cFree of capture and seizure f.c. s.Free of capture, seizure, riots, and civil commotion f.c.s.r. c.c.Free delivery to dock F.D.Free discharge f.d.Following; folios ff.Free of general average f.g.a.Free in bunker f.i.b.Free in and out f.i.o.Free in truck f.i.t.Free on board f.o.b.Free of charge f.o.c.Free of damage f.o.d.Following; folio fol.Free on quay f.o.q.Free on rail f.o.r.Free on streamer f.o.s.Free on truck(s) f.o.t.Free on wagons; free on wharf f.o.w.Floating policy F.P.Fully paid f.p.Free of particular average f.p.a.Freight frt.Freight paid frt. pd.Freight prepaid frt. ppd.Freight forward frt. fwd.Foot ft.Forward fwd.Foreign exchange f.x.General average g.a.Goods in bad order g.b.o.Good merchantable brand g.m.b.Good merchantable quality g.m.q.Greenwich Mean Time G.M.T.Gross national product GNPGood ordinary brand g.o.b.Gross gr.Gross register ton GRTGross weight gr. wt.Gross tonnage GTHome consumption h.c.Height hgt.Hogshead hhd.Head office H.O.Hire purchase H.P.Horsepower HPHeight ht.Integrated data pro cessing IDPThat is i.e.Insufficient funds I/FIndicated horsepower i.h.p.Import imp.Incorporated Inc.Inclusive incl.Interest int.Invoice inv.I owe you I.O.U.Joint account J/A, j.a.Junior Jr.Kilovolt KVKilowat KWKilowatt hour KWhLetter of credit L/C, l.c.Telegram in the language of the country of destination LCDTelegram in the language of the country of origin LCOLanding; loading ldg.Long ton l.t.Limited Ltd.Long ton l. tn.Month m.My account m/aMaximum max.Memorandum of deposit M.D.Months after date M/D, m.d.Memorandum memo.Plural of Mr. Messrs.Manufacturer mfr.Minimum min.Minimum lending rate MLRMoney order M.O.My order m.o.Mortgage mortg.Months after payment M/P, m.p.Mates receipt M/RMonths sight M/S, m.s.Mail transfer M.T.Making-up price M/UName; noiminal n.No account n/aNo advice N/ANo commercial value n.c.v.No date n.d.Not elsewhere specified n.e.s.No funds N/FNight letter NLNo noting N/NNo orders N/ONumber no.Not otherwise enume rated n.o.e.Numbers nos.No par value NPVNumber nr.Net register ton n.r.t.Not sufficient funds N/SNot sufficient funds NSFNet weight n. wt.On account o/aOverseas common point OCPOn demand; overdraft O/D, o/dOmissions excepted o.e.Overhead o/hOr nearest offer ono.Order of O/oOpen policy O.P.Out of print; overproof o.p.Owners risk O/R, o.r.Order, ordinary ord.Out of stock O.S., o/sOvertime OTPage; per: premium p.Particular average: per annum P.A., p.a.Power of attorney; private account P/APhase alternation line PALPatent-pending pat. pend.Pay as you earn PAYEPetty cash p/cPecent; price current p.c.Parcel pcl.Paid pd.Preferred pf.Package pkg.Profit and loss P/LPartial loss p.l.Promissory note P/NPost office; postal order P.O.Post office box P.O.B.Post office order P.O.O.Pay on return p.o.r.Pages pp.Postage and packing p pPer procuration p. proPrepaid ppd.Prompt ppt.Preference pref.Proximo prox.Postscript P.S.Payment pt.Please turn over P.T.O., p.t.o.Partly paid ptly. pd.Par value p.v.Quality qulty.Quantity qty.Riot and civil commotions r. c.c.Refer to drawer R/DRunning down clause R.D.C.In regard to   reReceived; receipt rec.Received recd.Redeemable red.Reference ref.Registered reg.Returned retd.Revenue rev.Refused on delivery   R.O.D.Reply paid R.P.Revolutions per second r.p.s.Please reply RSVPRight side up with care R.S.W.C.Railway RyStamped addressed envelope s.a.e.Stock at valuation S.A.V.Sea damaged S/DSight draft S/D, s.d.Without date s.d.Special drawing rights SDRSigned sgd.Sundays and holidays excepted s. h. exShipment shipt.Signature sig.Sue and labor clause S/LC, s l.c.Shiping note S/NSellers option s.o.Standard operating procedure s.o.p.Spot spt.Senior Sr.Steamship S.S., s.s.Short ton s.t.Sterling ster.Stock exchange St. Ex.Sterling stg.Sub voce s.v.Telegraphic address T.A.Trial balance T.B.Telephone tel.Temporary secretary temp.Total loss T.L., t.l.T otal loss only T.L.O.Multiple telegram TMTurn over T.O.Transfer tr.Telegram to be called for TRTrust receipt TR, T/RTelegraphic transfer (cable) TT, T.T.Telex TXUrgent UGTUnder separate cover u.s.c.Underwriters U/wsVolt v.Value val.Value-added tax v.a.t.Very good vg.Very high frequency VHFVery highly recommended v.h.r.Wat w.With average WAWaybill W.B.Without charge w.c.West European Time W.E.T.Weight guaranteed wg.Warehouse whse.With other goods w.o.g.Weather permitting; without prejudice W.P.With particular average w.p.a.War risk W.R.Warehouse receipt W/R, wr.Weather working day W.W.D.Weight wt.ex coupon x.c.ex dividend x.d.ex interest x.i.ex new shares x.n.Year y.Yard yd.Year yr.Yearly yrly.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Directing as a process - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 720 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2017/09/18 Category Management Essay Type Argumentative essay Did you like this example? DIRECTING Directing is the process that many people would most relate to managing. It is the act of supervising or leading workers to accomplish the goals of the organization. Furthermore, it is a process of influencing people’s behavior through motivation, communication, group dynamics, leadership and discipline. The purpose of directing is to channel the behavior of all personnel to accomplish the organization’s mission and objectives while simultaneously helping them accomplish their own career objectives. Consequently, directing includes the following functions the manager plays an active rather than passive role in employee performance, conduct, and accomplishments; the manager has a sensed responsibility of helping people in the organization accomplish their individual career goals; motivation; communication; performance appraisal; discipline; and conflict management. There are four ways to effectively carry out the managerial function of directing. First, to issue orders that are clear, complete, and within the capabilities of the subordinates; to define assignments; and to provide guidelines. Second, to provide an incessant training activity in which subordinates are given instructions. Third, to motivate workers to meet the expectations of the manager. Fourth, to maintain discipline; reward those who perform well; provide positive feedback; and be sincere throughout. To determine how good are the results that you get out of your subordinates, output or production; quality and workmanship; and cost and budget are to be considered. The different approaches in directing subordinates are as follows: train unskilled subordinates; consider your subordinates ideas; be accessible; listen actively and ask follow up questions; accept bad news as well as good ones; show that you value an opinion; and assume a â€Å"take charge’ role in cases of emergency. The manager must be able to motivate he’s employees in order to get things done. Motivation results from the existence of a person’s needs and the fulfillment of those needs. A need is an unfulfilled physiological or sychological desire of an individual. Several personalities proposed their own ideas regarding motivation and related it to management. Abraham Maslow, well known for his Hierarchy of Needs, identified five levels of human needs. These basic needs that motivate people to act in ways they do are the physiological, safety, social/belonging/love, esteem, and self actualization needs. Esteem and self actualization needs satisfy the higher order needs whereas physiological, safety, and social/belonging/love needs satisfy the lower order of needs. Frederick Herzberg introduced the Motivator or Hygiene Approach and classified needs into two factors: Motivation Factors, which are needed to motivate employee into higher performance; and Hygiene Factors that ensures the prevention of employee’s dissatisfaction. David McClell and also had his own approach regarding motivation which was called as Needs-based Motivation Model. Here he identified three needs that are vital to motivation, found to varying degrees in all workers or managers, and characterizes individual style and behavior. This includes the need for achievement (n-ach), need for power (n-pow), and need for affiliation (n-affil). Victor Vroom presented the Expectancy Theory which assumes that behavior results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose is to maximize and minimize pain. It say that individuals have different sets of goals and can be motivated if they believe that: there is a positive correlation between efforts and performance, favorable performance will result in a desirable reward, the reward will satisfy an important need, and the desire to satisfy the need is strong enough to make the effort worthwhile. Harold Leavitt, an author and management expert advocated a more democratic approach to organizational d ecision-making but also concluded that people in large groups work through a chain of command. He devoted much of his research to studying the dynamics of group decision making but found that hierarchical structures were unavoidable and probably necessary. He concluded that hierarchy remained â€Å"the best method ever invented for solving complicated problems. Communication is the ability to communicate with all people with whom the eader comes into regular contact; the ability to communicate continuously; the ability to use language which those on the receiving end will be able to understand and respond to. It transfers information and enhances understanding among individuals and groups. The elements of communication are medium, message, speaker, listener, feedback, interference, and context. Communication techniques include effective speaking, effective learning, feedback, and alert to nonverbal signals. Barriers encompass physical, psychological, cultural, attitudes and behavio ral aspects. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Directing as a process" essay for you Create order

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Night World The Chosen Chapter 16 Free Essays

A fighter knows instinctively when there’s no chance. But Rashel planned to fight anyway. And then she noticed something wrong. We will write a custom essay sample on Night World : The Chosen Chapter 16 or any similar topic only for you Order Now The vampires should have caught it first. Then-senses were sharper. But their senses were turned inward, focused on the victims in front of them. Rashel was the only one whose senses were turned outward, alert to everything but focused on nothing. There was a smell that was wrong and a sound. The smell was sharp, stinging, and close by. The sound was soft, distant, but recognizable. Gasoline. She could smell gasoline. And she could hear a faint dull roar that sounded like the fireplace in the gathering room-but was coming from somewhere else in the house. It didn’t make sense. She didn’t understand. But she believed it. â€Å"Quinn, get ready to run,† she said, a gasp on a soft breath. Something was about to happen. No, we have to fight- His thought to her broke off. Rashel turned to look at the doorway. Hunter Redfern had moved into the gathering room-but there was someone in the hall. Then the someone stepped forward and Rashel could see her face. Nyala was smiling brilliantly. Her small queenly head was high and her dark eyes were flashing. She was holding a red gasoline can in one hand and a liter of grapefruit juice in the other. The bottle was almost full of liquid and had a burning rag stuffed in the top. Gas. Gas from the pump on the wharf, Rashel thought. A Generation-X Molotov cocktail. â€Å"It’s all over the house,† Nyala said, and her voice was lilting. â€Å"Gallons and gallons. All over the rooms and the doors.† But she shouldn’t be hanging on to it, Rashel thought. That bottle is going to explode. â€Å"You see, I am a real vampire hunter, Rashel. I figure this way, we get rid of them all at once.† And the house is already burning†¦. Behind the carved screen on the right side of the room, ruddy light was flickering, growing. The faint roar that had disturbed Rashel was louder now. Closer. And everything’s wood, Rashel thought. Wood paneling, wood floors. Frame house. A deathtrap for vampires. â€Å"Get her,† Hunter Redfern said. But none of the vampires charged toward Nyala with her about-to-explode bottle of death and her can of fire accelerant. In fact, they were backing away, moving to the perimeter of the room. Hunter spun to face Nyala directly. You need to put that down, he began in telepathic tones of absolute authority-at the same time Rashel shouted, â€Å"Nyala, no-â€Å" The sound of telepathy seemed to set something off in Nyala. Flashing a dazzling savage smile, she smashed the grapefruit juice bottle at his feet. With almost the same motion, she threw the gasoline can, too. It was flying in a graceful arc toward the fireplace, spinning, spilling liquid, and vampires were scattering to try to get out of the way. And then everything was exploding-or maybe erupting was a better word. It was as if a dragon had breathed suddenly into the room, sending a roaring gale of fire through it. But Rashel didn’t have time to watch-she and Quinn were both diving. Quinn was diving for the floor past Nyala, trying to drag Rashel with him. Rashel was diving for Timmy. She didn’t know why. She didn’t think about it consciously. She simply had to do it. She hit Timmy with the entire force of her body and knocked him to the floor. She covered him as the fire erupted behind her. Then she scrambled to her knees, her arm locked around his chest. Everything was noise and heat and confusion. Vampires were yelling at each other, running, shoving each other. The ones who’d been splattered with gas were on fire, trying to put it out, getting in one another’s way. â€Å"Come on!† Quinn said, pulling Rashel up. â€Å"I know a way outside.† Rashel looked for Nyala. She didn’t see her. As Quinn dragged her into the hall, she saw dark smoke come billowing from the dining-room area. The hall was bathed in reddish light. â€Å"Come on!† Quinn was pulling her across the hall, through the smoke. Into a room that was full of orange flames. â€Å"Quinn-â€Å" Timmy was kicking and struggling in Rashel’s arms. Yelling at her. She kept her grip on him. And she went with Quinn. She had to trust him. He knew the house. She hadn’t realized how frightening fire was, though. It was like a beast with hot shriveling breath. It seemed alive and it seemed to want to get her, roaring out at her from unexpected places. And it spread so fast. Rashel would never have believed it could move so quickly through a house, even a house soaked with gasoline. In a matter of minutes the building had become an inferno. Everywhere she looked, there was fire, smoke, and a horrifying reflection of flames. They were on the other side of the room now, and Quinn was kicking at a door. His sleeve was on fire. Rashel twisted her hand out of his and beat at it to put it out. She almost lost hold of Timmy. Then the door was swinging outward and cool air was rushing in and the fire was roaring like a crazy thing to meet it. She was simply running, in panic, her only thought to hold on to Timmy and to stay with Quinn. They were out. But she smelled burning. And now Quinn was grabbing her, rolling her over and over on the sandy unpaved road. Rashel realized, dimly, that her clothes were on fire in back. Quinn stopped rolling her. Rashel sat up, tried to glance at her own back, then looked for Timmy. He was crouched on the road, staring at the house. Rashel could see flames coming out of the windows. Smoke was pouring upward and everything seemed as bright as daylight beneath it. â€Å"Are you all right?† Quinn said urgently. He was looking her over. Rashel’s whole body was washed with adrenaline and her heart was pounding insanely. But she couldn’t take her eyes off the house. She stumbled to her feet. â€Å"Nyala’s in there! I have to get her.† Quinn looked at her as if she were raving. Rashel just shook her head and started helplessly toward the house. She didn’t want to go anywhere near it. She knew the fire wanted her dead. But she couldn’t leave Nyala in there to burn. Then Quinn was shoving her roughly back. â€Å"You stay here. I’ll get her.† â€Å"No! I have to-â€Å" â€Å"You have to watch Timmy! Look, he’s getting away!† Rashel whirled. She didn’t have any clear idea of where Timmy might be getting away to-but he was on his feet and moving. Toward the house, then away from it. She grabbed for him again. When she turned back toward Quinn, Quinn was gone. No-there he was, darting into the house. Timmy was screaming again, kicking in her arms. â€Å"I hate you!† he shouted. â€Å"Let go of me! Why did you take me out?† Rashel stared at the house. Quinn was inside now. In that holocaust of flame. And he’d gone because of her, to save her from going herself. Please, she thought suddenly and distinctly. Please don’t let him die. The flames were roaring higher. The night was brilliant with them. Fire was raining in little burning bits from the sky, and Rashel’s nose and eyes stung. She knew she should get farther back, but she couldn’t. She had to watch for Quinn. â€Å"Why? I hate you! Why did you take me out?† Rashel looked at the strange little creature in her arms, the one that was biting and kicking as if it wanted to go back into the burning house. She didn’t know what Timmy had become-some weird combination of child, adult, and animal, apparently. And she didn’t know what kind of future he could possibly have. But she did know, now, why she’d brought him out. She looked at the childish face, the angry eyes full of hate. â€Å"Because my mom told me to take care of you,† she whispered. And then she was crying. She was holding him and sobbing. Timmy didn’t try to hold her back, but he didn’t bite her anymore either. Still sobbing, Rashel looked over his head toward the house. Everything was burning. And Quinn was still inside†¦. Then she saw a figure silhouetted against the flames. Two figures. One holding the other, half carrying it. â€Å"Quinn!† He was running toward her, supporting Nyala. They were both covered with soot. Nyala was swaying, laughing, her eyes huge and distant. Rashel threw her arms around both of them. The relief that washed over her was almost more painful than the fear. Her legs literally felt as if they had no bones-she was going to collapse at any second. She was tottering. â€Å"You’re alive,† she whispered into Quinn’s charred collar. â€Å"And you got her.† She could feel Quinn’s arm around her, holding hard. Nothing else seemed to matter. But now Quinn was taking his arm away, pushing her along the road. â€Å"Come on! We’ve got to get to the wharf before they do.† In a flash, Rashel understood. She got a new grip on Timmy and turned to run toward the hiking path. Her knees were shaking, but she found she could make them move. They lurched down the path in the wild grass, Quinn supporting Nyala, she carrying Timmy. Rashel didn’t know how many vampires had made it out of the burning house-she hadn’t seen any- but she knew that any who did would head for the dock. Where she and Annelise had disabled the boats. But as the wharf came into view, Rashel saw something that hadn’t been there when she left it. There was a yacht in the harbor, swinging at anchor. â€Å"It’s Hunter’s,† Quinn said. â€Å"Hurry!† They were flying down the hill, staggering onto the wharf. Rashel saw no sign of the werewolf she’d tied up earlier, but she saw something else new. An inflatable red dinghy was tied to the pier. â€Å"Quick! You get in first.† Rashel put Timmy down and got in. Quinn lifted Timmy into her arms, then put Nyala in. Nyala was staring around her now, laughing in spurts, then stopping to breathe hard. Rashel put her free arm around her as Quinn climbed in the dinghy. Every second, Rashel was expecting to see Hunter Redfern appear, blackened and smoldering, with his arms outstretched like some vengeful demon. And then the tiny motor was purring and they were moving away from the wharf. They were leaving it behind. They were on the ocean, the cool dark ocean, freeing themselves from land and danger. Rashel watched as the yacht got bigger and bigger. They were close to it now. They were there. â€Å"Come on. We can climb up the swimming ladder. Come on, fast,† Quinn said. He was reaching for her, his face unfamiliar in a mask of soot, his eyes intense. Absolutely focused, absolutely determined. Thank God he knows what to do on a boat. I wouldn’t. She let Quinn help her up the ladder, then helped Timmy and Nyala. Nyala had stopped laughing entirely now. She was simply gasping, looking bewildered. â€Å"What happened? What-?† She stared toward the cliffs where orange flame was shooting into the sky. â€Å"I did that. Did I do that?† Quinn had pulled up the anchor. He was heading for the cockpit. Timmy was crying. Kneeling on the deck, Rashel held Nyala. Nyala’s eyelashes were burned to crisp curls. There was white ash on the ends. Her mouth was trembling and her body shook as if she were having convulsions. â€Å"I had to do it,† she got out in a thick voice. â€Å"You know I had to, Rashel.† Timmy sobbed on. A motor roared to life. All at once they were moving swiftly and the island with its burning torch was falling behind. â€Å"I had to,† Nyala said in a choked voice. â€Å"I had to. I had to.† Rashel leaned to rest her head on Nyala’s hair. Wind was whipping around her as they raced away. She held the tiny vampire in one arm and the trembling human girl in the other. And she watched the fire get smaller and smaller until it looked like a star on the ocean. How to cite Night World : The Chosen Chapter 16, Essay examples

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

En value Management Progress of a Report

Question: Describe about the En value Management for Progress of a Report. Answer: Introduction: The project management refers to the measurement of the cost and progress of a report (Burke 2013). In the case of any project, it is important to make predictions about the future costs and time required for doing the project work (Kerzner 2013). The project management task in this assignment is based on the case study of Australian Centre for Moving Images. The principal of the company is seeking tenders for the provision of computer servers, tape robot systems, data storage and other software devices for its use. The principal of the company has made a plan of purchases in the initial phase. There is also a provision of future purchase. The future purchase is going to be made in the due course; possibly in a period of 2 years. The objective of this report is to make a Gantt chart to execute the entire process and various earned values that would be required for the project. The project plan is done on the basis of the time provided in the case study document. The EV cost diagram a nd other cost diagram gives an idea about the cost that would be required on a regular basis. Discussion: The project report provides an idea about the number of days that would be required to execute the entire process of providing the tender. The case study report shows that the RFT of the Tender has been called on 19th of September 2016. The end period of questions or requests for information based on the tender is on 6th October 2016. Therefore, the time required for the entire process is 17 days. The end date of submitting the tender is 10th October 2016. The time required for the second task is 4 days. The next step in this project work is the completion of evaluation of the tender. The task will require 15 days. The next task is the negotiations with the tenderer. This process will require 7 days. The next step is to notify the tender. This will require 2 days. The next step is execution of proposed contact. The task will require 4 days. The next step is to find out the date of commencement of order. There are in all 9 tasks that are to be performed for this project. The Gantt cha rt for this report is given below: Task name 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Issue of RFT - Ending time of asking questions by the tenderer Closing time of submitting tender Completion of evaluation of tenders Negotiation of tenderer Formal notification of tenderer Execution of proposed contact Date of commencement of project Table: Gantt chart for the project (Source: Created by author) The next step is to construct the Variance analysis plan of the project. The variance analysis plan gives the planned value, earned value and the total cost required for the execution of the project. The following table gives the costs required for the project: Task Subtask Milestone Status PV EV AC Variance % Schedule Cost 1 Completed 150 100 100 -50 0 2 Completed 40 40 25 0 15 3 Completed 75 75 50 0 25 4 Completed 40 40 30 0 10 5 Completed 75 75 60 0 15 6 Completed 40 40 40 0 0 7 In progress 125 90 110 -35 -20 8 Not started 50 0 0 -50 0 Task Totals 595 460 415 Table: Variance analysis table (Source: Created by author) Estimated cost at completion: The estimated cost at completion is the expected cost required to complete the work. The expected cost to complete the project is 0 in the case of this project. Cost summary: This section describes the impact of the costs that are incurred in the business. The Actual cost of the entire task is less than the earned value. This indicates that there is no threat in the business. S Curve: The S curve is obtained by plotting the cost incurred in various tasks in the business against time. The S curve for this project is given below. Figure: S curve of cost (Source: Created by author) The S curve obtained from the given costs is shown above. The Planned Value of the costs is steeper than he earned value and actual costs. This shows that the Earned Value and actual costs is less than the planned value of the project. Forecast completion date: The project requires in all 58 days to be completed. The start date of the project is 19th September 2016. The end date of the project will be 8th December 2016. Milestone report: The milestone report required for completing the entire project is given below: Milestone Task Scheduled Completion Projected Completion Actual Completion Issue 1 16th September 2016 16th September 2016 16th September 2016 No issue 3 6th October 2016 6th October 2016 8th October 2016 The task is delayed due to the clarification required by tenderer 4 31st October 2016 31st October 2016 2nd November 2016 Due to delay in Tender Closing time 8 12th December 2016 12th December 2016 15th December 2016 Due to delay in Evaluation of contract. Table: Milestone report of the project (Source: Created by author) The above table gives the main milestones required for conducting the project. The milestones of the project are the task 1 that issue of RFT, closing time of submission of tender, completion of evaluation of tenders and the announcement of date of starting of contract. The first task does not have any delay. The time of answering the questions regarding the tender has been delayed. This has led to the delay of all the tasks. Event report: Current Problem Potential Impact Corrective Action There is a problem regarding the submission of tenders as some tenderer could not understand the terms and condition of the tender. The consecutive tasks are all delayed due to the execution of this task. The terms and condition of the tender should be posted in such a way so that it could be easily understood. Table: Event report (Source: Created by author) Conclusion: The project report gives an idea about the time and cost required for the execution of the project. The projected valuation as well as the actual cost is being discussed in this project. A Gantt chart has also been provided for the project. The Gantt chart gives an idea about the total number of days required to complete each task of the project. There is a delay in execution of the entire project work due to clarification required by the people. Therefore, it is recommended from the study that the terms and conditions of the tender should be clearly stated. This would reduce both the time and cost required for the project. References: Burke, R., 2013. Project management: planning and control techniques.New Jersey, USA. Kerzner, H.R., 2013.Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley Sons.

Wednesday, April 1, 2020

The Secular And Religious Views Of Both, Antonio And Shylock, Were Por

The secular and religious views of both, Antonio and Shylock, were portrayed very bluntly. The religious opinions of both characters were that their religion was superior to infidels and also very stereotypical. In the business world, Antonio owned ships with valuable goods and was extremely generous. He always relied on their return to shore and expressed his faith in this book. On the other hand, Shylock was a greedy man and used the Bible for sources of interest to collect more money. Relating to religious views Antonio and Shylock were very parallel, but in means of business the two were reverses. "I[Shylock] hate [Antonio] for he is a Christian. . . [Antonio] hates our sacred nation." This phrase said by Shylock, a Jew, isbased on the beliefs of other Jews upon other Christians. Shylock is being very stereotypical because Shylock doesn't really know Antonio, Shylock heard of Jew-hating Christians, so he thinks that all Christians hate Jews. Antonio happens to be a great man and Shylock didn't even give him a chance, he just hates Antonio for being of different religion. "The Hebrew[Shylock] will turn Christian; he grows kind." Antonio says this, thinking that no Jews are kind, emphasizingnaiveness. Then Antonio sees the Hebrew, Shylock, becomes amiable, so he believes that's impossible. So Antonio interprets the scenario as Shylock being Christianized, because he is becoming generous. This quotation shows how Antonio thinks that his religion, Christianity, is superior to Judaism. The previous quotation illustrated how Shylock was stereotypical about Christians. Both characters have similar beliefs about other religions. "Why, fear not, man, I will not for felt it! Within these three months- that's a month before this bond expires-I do expect, returnof thrice three times the value of this bond." This phrase was said by Antonio assuring Shylock that his ship with all his goods will return with the interest that Antonio owes Shylock for borrowing money. This shows Antonio's trust in his ship even though there were strong winds and high chances that his ship will be overturned. Antonio is very naive about the real world of business and no matter what happens he thinks he will be successful. On the other hand, Shylock is a wise business man, but very greedy. These characteristics are displayed in the following quotation: "Mark what Jacob did . . . and in the doing of the deed of kind [Laban] struck them up before the fulsome ewes, who then conceiving did in eaning time fullparti-colored lambs, and those were Jacob's. This was a way to thrive, and he was blest; and thrift is blessing if men steal it not." When Shylock gave Antonio a loan, he charged him interest justified by the story in the Bible mentioned before. Shylock compares Antonio to Laban, both being kind, therefore both must be givers of interest.My view is that Shylock puts himself on the level of Jacob, a righteous man, showing his egotistical character. His greedy personality is expressed when Shylock finds sources of interest in a farfetched manner. In truth, this passage is an act of kindness, stressing Shylock's characteristic of being narrow minded. Antonio and Shylock are very similar people as well as opposites. Both, as proven in the story, are against the infidels to their religion and believe that their religion is the superior one. In terms of business, Antonio is generous, being willing to give thricethe loan, and Shylock is greedy, by asking for three times the loan. Antonio agrees to the deal, being very naive that his ship willreturn safely, and Shylock is very clever, but sneaky, in terms of this deal. While Antonio's perspectives on the secular and religious world are very naive, Shylock makes judgements based on first impressions. Antonio and Shylock showing their good qualities, suggest that men may look perfect, but deep inside, they acquire negative characteristics.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Spartan Education essays

Spartan Education essays When examining any society, one of the most important aspects of its civilization to identify is the education of the youth. Children yearn to please their instructors. Therefore, when all children throughout a society are taught a certain way to live and think, when they grow up, the society itself models these values instilled upon the children. Naturally, when using this ideal to study the history of the Ancient Greeks, focus falls upon its two major city-states, Athens and Sparta. As in almost every aspect of comparison, the difference between the education of the warlike Spartans compared to the education of the philosophical Athenians is like comparing black to white. The main focus of a Spartan education was not to focus on literacy. Instead, as a result of the system of helotry practiced in Sparta, fitness, obedience, and courage had to be taught in order for the Spartans to retain the militaristic supremacy that they had over the rest of the Peloponnesus. In contrast, an Athenian education was devoted to the three basic categories of literacy, music, and physical education in hopes of creating intelligent, well-rounded citizens who could responsibly participate in the Assembly. For purposes of comparison, the education of both societies can be broken down into three distinct periods of age in which certain traits were taught and which certain schools were attended. When education was complete, the society had successfully refined another child into its strict system of beliefs and principles. In the eighth century B.C., Sparta was in need of more fertile land to support an ever-growing population that demanded food. Consequently, Sparta was forced to do what any ancient civilization did when in need of resources: They invaded their neighbors, the Messenians, and after a twenty year war, enslaved them as their agricultural laborers, henceforth known as Helots. After many years, the Helots grew to outnumber the Spartans b...

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Changing Business Environment of Coca-Cola Company Assignment

Changing Business Environment of Coca-Cola Company - Assignment Example This paper illustrates that social environment of Coca-Cola Company has been clouded by the switching of consumers from the ordinary packaged soft drinks to the portable package method. Moreover, the advancement in technology has made it thrive in the business environment. Coca-cola Company has pride in being one of the recognized companies in the world and enjoys a global presence in the business environment. It has opportunities in the business environment with tangible continuous growth. Nevertheless, there is a need to improve its marketing strategy to be able to handle the threats of other companies that produce similar products. Coca-cola has continued o invest in the modern production techniques with the aim of reducing unit production cost and meeting the needs of potential consumers. Coca-cola market size, growth rate, and overall profitability have been evaluated through the attractiveness of the soft drinks and competitiveness of various firms in the industry. The market s ize has been increasing due to the introduction of new products in the market. Profitability and growth rates have solid with the company dominating more than half of the market while the rest of the market is occupied by Pepsi and Cadbury Schweppes. Hence, the Coca-Cola Company has continuously stayed ahead in the market for more than none hundred years. The Coca-Cola Company fits in the business environment because it is capable of giving most of the global market non-alcoholic drinks, which are composed of two sections; soft drinks and fruit juices. The soft drinks are of various flavors, both carbonate, and noncarbonated. The products that fall under the food and beverage industry are what have made Coca-cola, multinational. States, governmental changes, and other special politically instigated groups affect customer purchasing power and confidence in both local and international markets thereby reducing demand. Political conditions especially in the international market such as civil conflict, changes in government and /or limitations that pertain to a relocation of capital across borders. For instance, the political unrest in the Middle East adversely affected sales in the region.